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Unfortunately there exist only few photos of the shadow bands world-wide. So there is often still published lithography of the shadow bands of the eclipse 1870-12-22 from Gela / Sicily (former Terranova) by Demetrio Emilio Diamilla Müller (see picture left, from: G.F. Chambers: The Story of Eclipses, 1900, Thanks to Michael Zeiler, click onto image for larger version).

The best theory for the emergence of the shadow bands is published by Codona 1986. His theory meanwhile accepted by the most scientists. Codonas scintillation theory is able to explain very well also subtle photoelectric observations .

After Codona the shadow bands at ground level result from interference of light rays, taking a somewhat different way in the atmosphere when crossing its turbulences and density variations .

The best observation conditions for such interferences can be expected from point light sources. On the other hand, the more extended the source of light is, the more less will such interferences be perceptible. Nevertheless you may observe the so-called ” heat waves ” on very hot days on homogeneous structured surfaces. In general, they are nothing different than the shadow bands.

During a solar eclipse however the solar crescent becomes more and more the shape of a slot. While a point light source would produce a spotted interference pattern, the pattern produced by this slit-shaped solar crescent is smeared to bands.

Wit’s End: Smell the Earth, Taste the Rain…Hear the Sun Rise and Night Fall

 

http://witsendnj.blogspot.com/2013/10/smell-earth-taste-rainhear-sun-rise-and_10.html

 

biorock links and additional reading

Title Notes
Goreau’s “Marine Electrolysis for Building Materials and Environmental Restoration” Lots of essential details about the types of rocks grown at different charges, etc, and the increased growth of marine wildlife
Not as much detail about specific building techniques
Official Biorock FAQ Includes more practical questions of budget, process, materials – encouraging for those on a shoestring budget!
Goreau’s “Electrical Stimulation Greatly Increases Settlement, Growth, Survival, and Stress Resistance of Marine Organisms” Research paper with evidence and graphs of biorock’s positive effects on marine growth – good for the “why” of a project like this – includes oyster mentions
The Biorock Process Short general description of Biorock’s process, other pages on this site also useful to browse
DIY Aquarium Biorock – Forum 1 Forum, someone trying to create biorock in a home aquarium, conversation ends before a solution is described but still useful as a premise
DIY Biorock – Forum 2 70 forum posts, partly contesting Biorock’s strength for building materials, but this is irrelevant for a structure like ours that will stay underwater
Should read through – lots of concrete tips scattered throughout long nerdy conversation (how fast material builds up, what to use, etc.)
Seament Accretion Experiment This is one of the MOST useful pages so far! Describes and pictures specific materials (even dimensions and part #s) and spells out a step by step process
Includes a case study experiment of biorock
STUDY ON BIOROCK® TECHNIQUE USING THREE DIFFERENT ANODE MATERIALS (MAGNESIUM, ALUMINUM, AND TITANIUM) Compares anode materials – literally a tl;dr – Titanium is best and fastest, Magnesium Aluminum is second-best
DIY Biorock conservation Kind of introductory and written by a crazy guy, has a useful diagram to explain how the whole system is set up
Biorock Technology Benefits Search for “New York” to see examples of Biorock allowing oysters to grow even in severely polluted site in NYC – this applies to our project
Mara Mara’s worked with Tom and James- exactly what were trying to do
Colleen Colleen’s project, she’s very nice via email
Mara;s new project Mara’s using a fairytale format and aesthetic to develop a How-To for Oyster Rehab
The Biorock Book – Unit 16 – Bartlett School of Architecture Summarizes several practical experiments, useful for observing rate and factors of growth
Oyster Growth Study using Biorock® Accretion Technology Oyster and NYC-specific experiment – very similar to what we’re trying to do! Shows that oysters grow where Biorock gives them a structure, and they actually grow more quickly than other oysters
Biorock® oysters grow faster and have higher survival Results from studies on the growth rate of oysters in Biorock conditions in New York – Tom Goreau is an author

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“When heaven’s high vault condensing clouds deform,
Fair Amaryllis flies the incumbent storm,
Seeks with unsteady step the shelter’d vale,
And turns her blushing beauties from the gale.
Six rival youths, with soft concern impress’d,
Calm all her fears, and charm her cares to rest.” (I.151-156)

-Erasmus Darwin

Poem on evolution

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Erasmus Darwin offered the first glimpse of his theory of evolution, obliquely, in a question at the end of a long footnote to his popular poem The Loves of the Plants (1789), which was republished throughout the 1790s in several editions as The Botanic Garden. His poetic concept was to anthropomorphise the stamen (male) and pistil (female) sexual organs, as bride and groom. In this stanza on the flower Curcuma (also Flax and Turmeric) the “youths” are infertile, and he devotes the footnote to other examples of neutered organs in flowers, insect castes, and finally associates this more broadly with many popular and well-known cases of vestigial organs (male nipples, the third and fourth wings of flies, etc.)

Woo’d with long care, CURCUMA cold and shy
Meets her fond husband with averted eye:
Four beardless youths the obdurate beauty move
With soft attentions of Platonic love.

Darwin’s final long poem, The Temple of Nature was published posthumously in 1803. The poem was originally titled The Origin of Society. It is considered his best poetic work. It centres on his own conception of evolution. The poem traces the progression of life from micro-organisms to civilised society. The poem contains a passage that describes the struggle for existence.[10]

His poetry was admired by Wordsworth, although Coleridge was intensely critical, writing, “I absolutely nauseate Darwin’s poem”.[6] It often made reference to his interests in science; for example botany and steam engines.

 

WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN’D ASTRONOMER

When I heard the learn’d astronomer,

When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me,

When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them,

When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much applause in the lecture-room,

How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick,

Till rising and gliding out I wander’d off by myself,

In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,

Look’d up in perfect silence at the stars.

 

Walt Whitman

The Earth is a Trampled Garden

The Earth is A Trampled Garden
Bea Fremderman, Ficus Interfaith, and Laurie Kang
Organized by Bryce Grates

http://brycegrat.es/

Brooklyn, NY

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(Hu)Man is perpetually erasing existing bonds with nature in exchange for a reality that they have erected. This new reality can be viewed as a “second nature”. We are societally intertwined with this overdetermined second nature, and have pushed the antiquated “first nature” further and further away from us, into a space that only exists within the experience economy. This comes in the form of nature preserves, zoos, artificially-designed parks established in the midst of cities, and so forth. Much like art, we now experience and view nature as a preserved object, or entertainment. We see it as a reproduction of something that once was, which is now just an optimized system composed and funded through a capitalistic agenda.

The Earth is a Trampled Garden aims to bring together artists who move in the direction of a perhaps fictional, or not-yet-tapped, “third nature”. Handmade objects using seeds, plants, naturally occurring chemical reactions, et al., they provide a new take on the ways that natural materials can be considered and reconstructed for an audience.

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Photographer Franco Banfi and his fellow divers were following this pod of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) when the giants suddenly seemed to fall into a vertical slumber. This phenomenon was first studied in 2008, when a team of biologists from the UK and Japan inadvertently drifted into a group of non-responsive sperm whales floating just below the surface. Baffled by the behavior, the scientists analyzed data from tagged whales and discovered that these massive marine mammals spend about 7 percent of their time taking short (6- to 24-minute) rests in this shallow vertical position. Scientists think these brief naps may, in fact, be the only time the whales sleep.sleeping-whales.jpg.0x545_q70_crop-scale-1